## Deformed enveloping algebras

### Yorck Sommerhäuser

#### Abstract

We construct deformed enveloping algebras without using generators and
relations via a generalized semidirect product construction. We give two
Hopf algebraic constructions, the first one for general Hopf algebras with
triangular decomposition and the second one for the special case that the
outer tensorands are dual. The first construction generalizes Radford's
biproduct and Majid's double crossproduct, the second one Drinfel'd's Double
construction. The second construction is applied in the last section to
construct deformed enveloping algebras in the setting created by G. Lusztig.

#### Introduction

Deformed enveloping algebras were defined by V. G. Drinfel'd at the International
Congress of Mathematicians 1986 in Berkeley [2]. His definition
uses a system of generators and relations which is in a sense a deformation
of the system of generators and relations that defines the enveloping algebras of semisimple Lie algebras considered by J. P. Serre [15] in 1966
and known since then as Serre's relations. Serre's relations consist of two
parts, the first part interrelating the three types of generators and thereby leading to the triangular decomposition, the second, more important one being
relations between generators of one type. In 1993, G. Lusztig gave a construction of the deformed enveloping algebras that did not use the second
part of Serre's relations [4]. Lusztig's approach was interpreted
by P. Schauenburg as a kind of symmetrization process in which the braid group
replaces the symmetric group [13]. In this paper, we give a construction of deformed enveloping algebras without referring to generators
and relations at all.

The paper is organized as follows: In Section 2, we recall the notion of
a Yetter-Drinfel'd bialgebra and review some of their elementary properties
that will be needed in the sequel. In Section 3, we carry out the first
construction which leads to a Hopf algebra which has a two-sided cosmash product
as coalgebra structure. We show that many Hopf algebras with triangular decomposition are of this form.
As special cases, we obtain Radford's biproduct and Majid's double crossproduct.
In Section 4, we carry out the second construction which applies to a pair of
Yetter-Drinfel'd Hopf algebras which are in a sense dual to each other. In
Section 5, we explain how Lusztig's algebra **´f** which corresponds to the
nilpotent part of a semisimple Lie algebra is a Yetter-Drinfel'd Hopf algebra
and how the second construction can be used to construct deformed enveloping
algebras.

- Homepage
- Last modification: February 25, 2002